Metal containers are available in a wide variety of sizes, shapes and textures. Most all of metal container characteristics are a result of the way in which they where processed. Below are some of the processes used to form metal containers.
The deep drawing process allows for relatively complex shapes to be formed. The blank sheets of metal are fixed between a blank holder and a die or mold. A punch presses the sheet into the die forming the shape.
Rolling is a method of metal production that produces flat sheet metal, profiles and profile sheets. The sheet metal is passed between two rolls that either reduces the thickness of the sheet or bend it to form a profile.
The bending production method is the deformation of metals about a linear axis with little or no change in the surface area. The various bend axis can be at angles to each other, but each axis must be linear and independent of the others. If the axis of deformation is not linear or not independent the process becomes one of the drawings and or stretching.
The method of extrusion produces profiles with open or hollow cross sections. Extrusion is a fairly inexpensive way of getting rather complex cross-section shapes. Extruded profiles can be further processed with bending and pressing. In extrusion the material is forced to flow through a die opening to produce a desired cross section shape. Another way to think of extrusion production is like squeezing toothpaste out of a toothpaste tube. If the material is heated before processing it is called hot extrusion, otherwise it is cold extrusion.
Forging is a process of forming metal parts by the use of heat and pressure. Forging develops a grain structure in the metal, which makes it stronger in the direction that it has been stretched. During the forging process the metal is compressed between two dies. Often the metal is heated in order to temporally reduce the strength of the metal, which allows the metal to be more easily formed. The forging process reduces the amount of material waste and therefore reduces the material cost. It also improves production speed and gives a more favorable grain orientation to the finished product.